Tulsa Entrepreneurs Reclaim Black Wall Street 99 Years After Massacre


  • May 31 marks 100 years for the reason that Tulsa race bloodbath.
  • In 2020, Insider spoke with artists and enterprise house owners rebuilding Tulsa’s Black Wall Street.
  • “We want to show that these injustices are still happening,” Dr. Stevie Johnson stated.
  • See extra tales on Insider’s enterprise web page.

This article was initially revealed on June 19. 

On a spring day in March 2020, Black artists from Oklahoma gathered in a historic mansion in Tulsa to document a hip-hop album and documentary.

Stevie Johnson, aka Dr. View, is the producer for the mission, referred to as the “Fire in Little Africa.” As he mixes and masters the recordings, the Black Lives Matter motion has reached a fever pitch in America, organizing in dozens of cities to protest the disaster of racism and police brutality.

Tulsa, specifically, was thrust again into the nationwide highlight when President Donald Trump’s marketing campaign introduced that it will maintain its first in-person rally for the reason that coronavirus was declared a pandemic within the metropolis on June 19, or Juneteenth, the day that commemorates the emancipation of American slaves.

Read extra: The “concerted effort” to cowl up the Tulsa Race Massacre

The metropolis was the positioning of a horrific occasion: a 1921 assault often called the Tulsa race bloodbath. In the years main as much as that assault, Tulsa’s “Black Wall Street” was an instance of a thriving Black neighborhood in an period when systemic racism largely prevented such issues. But that modified on May 31, 1921, when simmering racial rigidity boiled over. White residents of Tulsa started looting and burning the 35-acre district that was Black Wall Street within the early hours of June 1, ultimately killing an estimated 300 individuals.

“Fire in Little Africa” is known as for that reveals town’s Black industrial district engulfed in smoke after the assault. This violent second in historical past, nonetheless unprosecuted and forgotten in most American historical past books, stays an open wound for a lot of of Tulsa’s residents.

Little Africa on Fire

Tulsa’s Black industrial district of Greenwood engulfed in smoke after the Tulsa race bloodbath.

American National Red Cross assortment (Library of Congress)


The Greek Revival-style constructing often called Skyline Mansion, the place Johnson and his collaborators are recording was in-built 1920 by W. Tate Brady, an Oklahoma businessman and member of the Ku Klux Klan. It was from this mansion that Brady, additionally believed to be one of many key architects of the bloodbath, descended 99 years in the past to patrol the blood-stained streets of the Greenwood District, the place Black Wall Street was.

“You could just feel that Brady didn’t want us there,” stated Johnson, who can also be the director of training on the Bob Dylan and Woody Guthrie facilities, two associated establishments in Tulsa that maintain the singers’ archives. Mysteriously flickering lights and tingling nerves in the course of the 18-hour recording session gave the group a profound sense that Tulsa’s violent previous was very a lot alive at the moment, he added.

When a few of the contributors expressed discomfort at working in such an traditionally fraught home, Johnson stated he advised them, “We’re here to reclaim this space for this project.”

“We’re bending time. We’re bending history,” he stated. “We’re posing questions like, ‘Are we talking about today, or are we talking about 100 years ago?’ We want to show that these injustices are still happening.”

Fire in Little Africa

Musicians Tea Rush, Ausha, and Medisin document a tune.

Ryan Cass


As increasingly more information shops, together with Insider, reported on the seeming coincidence of Trump’s marketing campaign celebrating Black emancipation with a rally on the website of such a traumatic bloodbath, the marketing campaign rescheduled the occasion for the subsequent day. But Johnson stated the message was clear.

“There’s no coincidence that he wants to come to Tulsa,” Johnson stated. “People are making very tactical decisions about Black Wall Street and profiting off of Black trauma and Black death.”

Insider spoke with the Black artists and entrepreneurs who’re working to reclaim and reckon with Tulsa’s difficult historical past. Together, these founders are writing a brand new chapter within the story of Black Wall Street, at the same time as America is just starting to handle points that Johnson says have made Black Tulsans concern for his or her lives for a century.

The bookstore founder who crowdfunded an area for the Black neighborhood and training

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Onikah Asamoa-Caesar is the founding father of Fulton Street Books in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Onikah Asamoa-Caesar


Five blocks north of the Skyline Mansion, Onikah Asamoa-Caesar runs Fulton Street Books, a bookstore and café that gives a protected area for marginalized communities. Asamoa-Caesar moved to Tulsa in 2013 to turn out to be a Teach for America member. She stated she quickly realized the realm wasn’t as various as she had hoped it will be.   

“Anytime I walked into a space, I always felt othered,” Asamoa-Caesar advised Insider. “I never walked into a space and felt like someone thought of me when they created this or this was created for me in mind.” 

Fulton Street Books fills that void. The retailer affords a wide range of books from authors of shade in hopes of teaching younger individuals on literature by a various set of writers. 

One of the store’s hottest objects is the Ally Box, a three-month subscription field to assist white individuals turn out to be higher allies to the Black neighborhood. Each field consists of two books, curated assets, and entry to a studying webinar for $80 a month.

“People want resources: ‘Where can I find resources for allyship?'” Asamoa-Caesar stated. “A lot of folks were starting to understand the burden that is placed on Black folks to be the ones who are offering a free public education, while also experiencing pain and anger and rage and sadness.” 

Fulton Street Books in Tulsa, Oklahoma

The inside of Fulton Street Books.

Courtesy Fulton Street Books


Asamoa-Caesar stated she initially struggled to safe funding for the store. She raised a complete of $250,000 for her enterprise via a mixture of loans, private funds, and a crowdfunding marketing campaign.

“It was a very healthy mix of funding sources,” Asamoa-Caesar stated. “I didn’t have the liberty to say, ‘Oh, I just want it to be crowdfunded,’ or, ‘I just want it to be a business loan.'”

There are two steps she recommends entrepreneurs think about when funding a brand new enterprise. First, she says providing a product that provides worth to the neighborhood incentivizes individuals to put money into and assist the enterprise when it opens.

“I think for Fulton Street, our strategy was to create a space that people have been wanting and believe that it would attract them there,” she stated. Her Indiegogo crowdfunding marketing campaign raised $21,783 from 200 backers.

Second, says stated it is vital to take a threat in asking for assist.

“I asked people to invest in Fulton Street, even if I thought they might say no,” she stated.

It’s vital for enterprise house owners of shade to ask their communities for monetary backing, Asamoa-Caesar stated. This is particularly true since conventional routes of funding aren’t at all times dependable sources. Insider beforehand reported that Black feminine founders earned zero.2% of all venture-capital funding in 2015.

“What you’ll hear is Black women are not getting the same or equal amount of funding because they’re a bigger risk,” Asamoa-Caesar stated. “But what I’ve seen is that they’re not any more risky than the tech startup that people are investing in.” 

She added: “Creating equity in terms of who corporations are willing to take a risk on is necessary.”

The mayoral candidate who based Black Wall Street Gallery and went again to the drafting board to concentrate on what his clients want

Dr. Ricco Wright

Ricco Wright is the founding father of Black Wall Street Gallery in Tulsa.

Michael Oliver


A five-minute drive to the southeast, on Greenwood Avenue, the Tulsa native Ricco Wright created the Black Wall Street Gallery. Wright, who holds a doctorate in arithmetic, has many roles, together with thinker, educator, author, and social-justice activist. One of his latest titles is candidate for mayor of Tulsa — a call he made on deadline day for coming into the race. And certainly one of his essential working factors is to assist small companies, as he has skilled the challenges of being an entrepreneur himself.

Wright launched the gallery in 2018 as an area to protect Black historical past and curate Black tradition. His enterprise facilities round selling fairness and justice over range and inclusion. “It’s shifting that paradigm,” he stated. “Part of the problem that we’re dealing with is a lack of education. People don’t know about other cultures.”

Though the gallery took a success in the course of the coronavirus pandemic, it pushed him and his crew to construct a web-based presence and begin his clothes label, Stradford & Smitherman. Wright additionally plans to open a document retailer referred to as Needle & Wax.

Black Wall Street Gallery - Tulsa

The inside of Black Wall Street Gallery.

Michael Oliver


Wright stated it was vital for enterprise house owners to return to the drafting board throughout crises and ask what they wanted to do in a different way. “I noticed that more people were engaging online. So take your business online,” he stated. 

When he posts on the gallery’s Instagram web page, he consists of as much as 10 images of 1 art work so viewers really feel nearer to the piece and may admire it once they cannot go to the bodily exhibit.

Wright created a four-part philosophy he calls “socioracial idealism,” which he stated guided each exhibition on the gallery. According to this idea, every step — conciliation, therapeutic, unity, and love — is crucial for communities to realize justice and fairness.

He is hopeful however not optimistic that the present momentum of Black Lives Matter will encourage lasting international change. “People who haven’t been activists, now they’re ready to be activists, to get on the front line, to also support Black-owned businesses and Black organizations and Black activists, because they’re saying enough is enough,” he stated.

The younger entrepreneur who has mixed her love of sneaker tradition along with her ardour for fantastic artwork — and is persisting via lean occasions in the course of the pandemic

Silhouette Tulsa/Venita Cooper

Venita Cooper is the founding father of Silhouette in Tulsa.

Courtesy Venita Cooper


Last yr, Venita Cooper had an thought: an artwork gallery inside a sneaker retailer. 

“I wanted to deliver an experience,” she advised Insider. “Part of sneaker culture is art. Sneakers are art. Sneakers are street, and the street has art.”

Cooper instantly sprang into motion. She took a business-planning class on the Tulsa Economic Development Corp. and took half in a Tulsa startup collection, the place entrepreneurs pitch enterprise concepts for grant cash. She went via the George Kaiser Family Foundation and Black upStart, a program that permits rising entrepreneurs to take lessons and refine their enterprise pitches.  

The outcome was a sneaker retailer and streetwear-inspired artwork gallery named Silhouette Sneakers and Art, now on Greenwood Avenue, close to Wright’s Black Wall Street Gallery. 

“The term ‘silhouette’ was good at encapsulating that we’re not just sneakers,” she stated. “One of the most beautiful things for me is when teenagers come in here, they’re wearing their Yeezys and they go straight to the sneakers, but on the way out, they actually look at the art.”

Silhouette in Tulsa, Oklahoma

The inside of Silhouette.

Courtesy Venita Cooper


Like most entrepreneurs throughout this time, Cooper has needed to transfer her sneaker and artwork expertise on-line. The pandemic compelled her brick-and-mortar retailer to briefly shut, and he or she has seen a virtually 70% lower in gross sales these previous few months. 

But surprisingly, she is not too apprehensive about that. 

“We weren’t putting a lot of pressure on people to purchase, in part because with all the economic uncertainty, we didn’t want people to feel like they had to buy in order for us to survive,” she stated.

Cooper utilized for help via the federal authorities’s coronavirus aid invoice and obtained funding via each choices — a mortgage from the Paycheck Protection Program and an Economic Injury Disaster Loan.

While Cooper’s enterprise continues to be new, its sheer existence, particularly within the Greenwood District, is kind of symbolic. It’s an emblem of Black Americans rebuilding on land as soon as set aflame by a white mob who merely did not need them there.

As the conversations of Black socioeconomic mobility reemerges amid the civil unrest attributable to the killing of George Floyd, this symbolism lingers behind Cooper’s thoughts. 

“We can’t hang our hats on any of the progress that’s already been made because there are still people dying at the hands of racial injustice,” she stated.

“As long as that’s the case … we as a community have to look at ourselves and see what we can do and move quickly to try to make sure that everyone in the community feels safe, that everyone in the community has equal opportunities,” she added. 

“There’s a kind of energy right now, nationally, and even internationally for America that I have never witnessed in my life,” she stated. “I’m cautiously optimistic.”



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